Friday, 21 November 2014

QK Archives: Paul Wolfs work : Pakistan: Partition and Military Succession: Tribal Belt

' reproduced solely for educational purposes, this information is from the Paul Wolf work taken from the US National Archives. It is reproduced solely for educational purposes as original site is no longer available online'

Documents from the U.S. National Archives

Bajaur Bombing
Massacres of Powindahs
Public Demonstrations


On Friday, May 18, 1962 mobs in this city stoned the American Consulate, tore down the Consulate flag and destroyed it, severely damaged several cinemas and nearly destroyed one, stoned and attacked Radio Pakistan, broke almost all windows in Dean's Hotel, forced their way into the room occupied by the Dutch Ambassador and his wife and stole his clothing and money, completely destroyed at least two liquor stores, and did other damage. ... Prologue to events. On Wednesday, May 16 there were rumors that all shops and officies in Qissa Khwani Bazaar would close just before the Friday prayers on May 18 and would remain closed for the rest of the day. This was to be done in protest against a film on the life of the Prophet which was said to be planned by an Italian firm. No one took this very seriously because most of the shops and offices are regularly closed for that period each Friday. On Thursday, signs and posters appeared urging all shops to cooperate in this "hartal", not only in the City but also in the Cantonment Saddar Bazaar. Riots in Peshawar: A Description and Analysis, May 21, 1962

Beginning last week in May, press and radio started exploit Peshawar disturbances as manifestation Pushtun hatred of GOP military rule. Claim Paks attempted minimize magnitude riots, falsely attributed cause to foreign movie company activities, and discouraged Pak press coverage; GOP obliged use tanks and heavy weapons put down demonstrations and only in this way "prevented" attacks on American Consulate and British High Commissioner's office (no mention made of stoning of Consulate and flag mutilation); casualty toll has risen to 8 dead and 21 injured by Pak military action with over 350 arrests; absence Afghan Consulate in Peshawar deprives Pak propagandists of east scapegoat, obliging them fabricate story that demonstrations were against film company. ... CAS [CIA] reports that RGO sent 1500 men from Seventh Infantry Division and probably preparing some units of Mountain Division for return to Pak border in Chiga Serai area, in hopes exploiting any opportunities unrest in tribal area may present. Peshawar Riots, June 10, 1962

The reporting officer has now been told by four highly reputable officials that the DIK Commissioner was subjected to severe sniping, apparently in late May or early June. Unrest in South Waziristan Agency: Fragmentary Reports, July 16, 1962

On the morning of May 1 an infantry company began an exercise near the administrative border between the settled area and the Adam Khel Afridi tribal territory. Shortly afterwards a body of Afridi tribals appeared and in the ensuing skirmish, at least two soldiers were killed and others were wounded. The casualties of the Afridis are not known. Acts of Violence -- Attacks on Army Units, Murder, Kidnapping, Feuding -- Still Play Important Role in Frontier Life, May 13, 1963

According to Yusuf, the Political Agent had made funds available to an old and venerable malik, Malik Shahzada Khan Halimzai Mohmand, for the construction of a school and a hospital. The malik, who is also a member of the Agency Council, had started his construction without discussing the matter with other important maliks of the area. One of those maliks, Haji Abdullah Khan, who according to Yusuf is a sometime Afghan agent and is an enemy of Malik Shahzada, had objected to the project and warfare resulted. The tribals are equipped with mortars, Bren guns, grenades, plastic bombs, and, of course, rifles, and Yusuf stated that there had been a serious loss of life. Memorandum of Conversation with Mohammad Yusuf Mohmand, April 7, 1963

According available sources, tribal areas peaceful since beginning current emergency. Truce in inter-tribal disputes (TIGA) instituted by jirgahs throughout belt. Including suspension minor hostilities in progress between two Dir tribes. Pathans disappointed Afghan failure support jehad more vigorously, but report no Pushtunistan incitement from Afghans. Movements of 1500 Mujahis each from Dir and Swar reliably reported. Less reliable reports say 3000 Afridis in Rajastan sector. Volunteers from other tribal areas reportedly in Sialkot and Kashmir fronts, numbers unknown. Telegram from Karachi Embassy, Oct. 22, 1965

Violence is not uncommon in the NWFP but the recent wave of murders, kidnappings, robberies and thefts, which has hit the region from Swabi to D. I. Khan is alarming the community. Government authorities are trying their best to cope with the situation but because of the explosive nature of the Pathan society they find it difficult to maintain law and order. Tribal feuds in the region still exact their victims and with firearms easily available, the slightest provocation can lead to death. Police power often become ineffective since the law denies the authorities jurisdiction over tribal territory. The police force of the Superindendent of Police of Peshawar consists of 1,200 poorly trained constables whose pay is low and who, by the Superindendent's own admission, are easily corrupted. Police investigations are conducted by the interrogation and elimination process -- all suspects are beaten up until the guilty one breaks down and confesses. Attempts to arrest criminal suspects often lead to pitched battles between the police, the criminal and his relatives. ... Political rallies in the Frontier are often punctuated by rifle shots triggered by enthusiastic Pathans. It takes little imagination to visualize what the consequences to public order could be if hot Pathan tempers are flared up by inflammatory speech. In some cases, such as in Swabi and Swat, the carrying of arms has resulted in injuries and death. In both cases NAP (Wali) and PML (Qaiyum) followers were involved. Violence in the NWFP, May 14, 1970

Mohammad Yunus (protect) Ministry of Foreign Affairs Director General for Middle East, Arab States, Afghanistan and CENTO Affairs, reviewed with the reporting officer on February 23 the situation in the North West Frontier Province and Baluchistan. ... Yunus asserted that the government was very concerned at repeated reports of foreign arms and money being distributed in both Baluchistan and the NWFP. He felt is was being done for obvious reasons: It is a cheap way for India to continue its efforts to dismember Pakistan and it serves the Soviet objective of creating yet another state or states which will be subject to Soviet influence. Should Baluchistan emerge as a separate pro-Soviet entity, he said, the Soviets would be in a position to force greater Afghanistan compliance with Soviet demands. Views of MFA Official on Pak/Afghan Relations and Situation in North West Frontier and Baluchistan, March 6, 1972

Bhutto has overthrown governments in Baluchistan and Frontier dominated by chief political rival to his own People's Party. ... While successful in first part of game plan against his major opponents, Bhutto is encountering difficulties in putting together pro-government coalition in two provinces although through patronage and coercion he should eventually succeed. Internal Political Developments: Bhutto's Political Coup, March 1, 1973

Unlike the other tribal agencies, Mohmand Agency has been without a security force, other than a few khassadars, since 1947. To remedy this situation, the government in early October, deployed elements of the Khyber Rifles (from the neighboring Khyber Agency) on the old British road and established positions of strength in Ikkaghund, Yusuf Khel and Kahakki. Other elements of the Khyber Rifles, joined by units of the Bajaur Scouts, established themselves along the route of the proposed new road between Nahakki and Nawagai. By the middle of the month pictures began to appear in the press showing Mohmand tribal youth in the Yusuf Khel offering themselves for recruitment for a new security force to be known as the Mohmand Rifles. ... The government's decision to open up Mohmand Agency has been received with mixed feelings by tribal leaders in the agency. There reportedly is considerable dissatisfaction among maliks in both the Upper and Lower Mohmand regions with the government's deployment of elements of the Khyber Rifles and Bajaur Scouts to the agency. It is their feeling that the government has shown itself to be hostile to the Mohmands by moving an outside force into the agency instead of recruiting a new force entirely from among the Mohmands themselves. GOP Begins Penetration of Mohmand Agency, Nov. 14, 1973

Bajaur Bombing
A series of circumstances over the past week has raised suspicions that local elements of the Pakistan Army may have experienced some sort of "flap" in recent days. The circumstances included: an assemblage of Frontier area Army brigade commanders here on the 24th and 25th; the non-attendance of any senior Army officers at the Commerce College dedication by Miss Fatima Jinnah on the 25th, an event for which seats had been reserved for them on the dias; the last minute cancellation of a big Armored Corps parade at Nowshera on the 26th at which the Commander-in-Chief, General MUHAMMAD MUSA, was to have been the chief guest; the disappearance and protracted absence of one of the local division's infantry battalions. Whether all these circumstances were connected or not, my suspicions have now been confirmed by the Consulate's Political Assistant, Col. KHUSHWAQT-UL-MULK. During a visit with Col. Khushwaqt on the 26th, he reported that he had just received two definite indications that a disturbance had occurred recently in troublesome Bajaur, between Dir State and the Pak-Afghan border. One of the Colonel's friends who had reached Peshawar that day after an overland journey from Chitral had said that he had heard reports in Dir City to the effect that "a group of Masuds" had been fired upon in Bajaur. Several Masuds reportedly had been killed in the skirmish. Reports of a Minor Skirmish in Bajaur and of Dissatisfaction of Dir Elders with the Young Nawab, Oct. 30, 1962

American civilian armament specialist (imperative protect source) assigned Air Force MAAG Peshawar obtained following detailed account last night from PAF pilot friend who considered fully informed and reliable source. Local disturbance broke out between April 6 and 8. When political agents unable cope with situation PAF called in perform daily reconnaissances including daily air drop leaflets approx April 9-11 calling for ceasefire. On fourth day, (probably April 12) tribals fired on Pak planes damaging wing of one F-86 with "bazooka" shells. (American civilian inspected plane this morning in PAF station hangar Peshawar, which "off limits" to MAAG personnel until today, and personally verified wing damage. Civilian also obtained identification of pilot as Squadron Leader Rehmat Khan who is friend of Con officers, son of Nawab of Tank and happened participate in last important PAF airstrike on tribal territory late 1961). According PAF source, damage to F-86 deeply offended PAF which delivered "4-hour ultimatum" to tribals concerned (whether on own hook or higher authority unknown) and then carried out punitive attack on homestead of one offending Malik (presumably afternoon April 13) using rockets and napalm. Information received from AmCon Peshawar, April 21, 1963

News of tribal trouble and PAF air action Bajaur becoming common knowledge and subject muted conversation Peshawar, particularly among newsmen who obviously being restrained from reporting events known to them and others. ... Source stated dissidents being led by Dilawar Khan, believed by consulate to be one of two leading Bajaur Maliks who cooperated with GOP in ambushing and repulsing Afghan Lashkar September 1960. Source opined Afghan agents playing at most minor role in fomenting latest disturbances Bajaur. Telegram from Karachi Embassy, April 25, 1963

The "Conquerer of Bajaur" then asserted that he and the Army officer, Lt. Colonel ABDUL QARIM, now the Commandant of the Bajaur Scouts, had used generous bribes and impressive threats to induce the two maliks to cooperate with them in preparing an ambush. The ambush was laid and, with the "help" of a detachment of the Baluch Regiment Special Force from Cherat, over 1200 of the Afghan lashkar had been killed with a loss of "about eighty of us." Events Which Led to Ambush of Afghan Lashkar in Bajaur in September 1960, as Described by the "Conqueror of Bajaur," April 25, 1963.

Massacres of Powindahs
Mortars, machineguns and rifles had been ordered to be "zeroed in" on one section of the defile. Despite the usual warnings a long powindah caravan started moving one night silently through the defile. Someone -- the APA later blamed the captain, and the captain of the APA -- ordered the troops to open fire in the dark. In the morning, according to Iftikhar and Askar Ali, when the Scouts looked out on the carnage they had caused -- including the bodies of some women and children -- they were so appalled that about a dozen of them deserted with their rifles and have not yet been apprehended. Peshawar Observers See Dangerous Possibilities in Powindah Situation, Describe Incidents of Last Fall, Sept. 1, 1962

On November 23, traveling in small family groups, the Powindahs passed witnin artillery randge of the Pakistan militia stationed around Gul Kuch. Supposedly the militia artillery opened fire at long range without warning, causing numerous casualties among the family groups who then withdrew to their previous camping sites around the Gumal. Reported Shelling of Powindahs by Pak Militia Artillery, Dec. 16, 1963

Public Demonstrations
Evidence seems to be mounting to support the conclusion that communist elements have in fact exploited the student situation in the Frontier area. Evidence from Top Police Official and Others that Communists May Have Instigated Recent Student Disturbances in Peshawar, March 13, 1965

Demonstration by Christian community Rawalpindi resulted in death three persons August 30. GOP deplored demonstration, stating nationalization not based on communal considerations. Christians have scheduled further demonstration for August 31. Three Killed in Demonstration Against Nationalization Christian Schools, Aug. 31, 1972

The students of the highly conservative Frontier College for Women have been discarding their burkas and in a militant mood have "gheraoed" their institution in an effort to compel the provincial authorities to stop the transfer of the College Principal, Miss Awan. ... Apart from the petty nature of the struggle in which the Governor has gotten himself involved unnecessarily, the "strike" should be considered a sociological breakthrough for the Frontier. It isn't very often that sheltered young ladies of the NWFP act in utter defiance of Victorian backgrounds. Notes from Peshawar, March 27, 1972

Hard to believe this new anti-Mujib campaign could have been launched without at least acquiescence of some entity within GOP. If, as many believe, GOP accomodation with Mujib is only way out of present crisis, GOP propagandists would seem to be painting selves even more tightly into corner by inflaming West Pak populace against Mujib. New Twist in "Crush India" Propaganda Campaign, Oct. 26, 1971

A "Crush India" procession marched through Lahore on the morning of November 7 with thousands of Lahorites participating, according to the right wing Jamiat-i-Islam newspaper, Kohistan. Left wing papers claimed that there were only a couple hundred demonstrators. ... On November 8 a large students procession organized by the Islami Jamiat-e-Tulba (IJT) paraded through Lahore. The students carried placards such as "Crush India" and "Liquidate the Treacherous Enemy." Anti-India Demonstration and Procession, Nov. 9, 1971

Copyright Paul Wolf, 2003-2004. No copyright to original government works. For educational use only.
Post a Comment